Today was an exciting day that marked an important milestone on the homestead. We harvested our first round of humanure! Yes, we opened one of the 2 bays of our composting toilet to use the fertility we’d be accumulating and make way for more.
If you’re not sure what humanure is, check out our previous posts on it:
The entrance to our fertility laboratory
Humanure Smells Like Forest Duff
If you’re unsure what that’s like, think about if you went and buried your head in a big pile of leaves on the forest floor. It’s a smell I love!!
To be honest I was a little nervous at what we’d find, although my nerves proved unfounded. We last used this bay over 18 months ago and haven’t checked on it since having sealed and dated it like a vault. After leaving our fertility deposits on the daily for a little more than a year, today was the day to make our first withdrawal. For those of you unfamiliar with a double bay composting toilet system I’ll explain it a little for clarity.
An early shot of the 2 composting bays. We used local rocks to create the foundation.
The double bay style of composting toilet is a passive way to harvest fertility and safely manage humanure.
As the name implies, it consists of 2 alternating bays that are consecutively filled with manure and urine. After each deposit of humanure and/or urine, a generous portion of sawdust or wood shavings (or other carbonaceous material) is poured on top. This ensures efficient and odorless composting. Using this method, there is no need for lime or other deodorizers. It doesn’t smell if there’s enough carbon!
A look at our composting toilet from the ground up.
The first bay is closed off when full and the second one is put into use.
Depending on timing, the first bay may be safe to harvest once the second one is filled. This was the case for us. Given the fact that we are in need of the space in the first bay and intended to use the humanure, we went ahead and applied it directly to the base of some of our fruit trees. Another option would be to move in to another location where it would sit for another 6 months (making for a total of 24 months) to ensure safe low temperature composting.
A look inside at our system. The bin in the middle is filled with a scooper and sawdust or planar shavings.
Harvesting our fertility is an empowering, easy and rewarding part of homestead living.
Being biological entities, it seem crazy to me that we aren’t more clued into the magical ways in which we can harness the biological miracles we have access to. For instance, black soldier fly larvae LOVE to eat. They happen to dine on a wide range of fare, including feces. They are also known as privy flies, I wonder why?
The Soldier Fly (source)
We can ally with then by allowing them access to egg laying sites on our humanure systems and let them do their thing. This means they further transform our past food into future soil food! We often hear them in incredible numbers taking our humanure one step closre to humus. FYI these flies DO NOT eat as adults (they wont land and spread feces on your food!) and pose no health risk whatsoever. On the contrary, they are of great benefit. (Read more from one of @quochuy’s recent posts on these wonderful beings.)
We can let nature take care. It’s what it’s meant to do.
By using simple biological processes like composting, we can rid ourselves of the idea of labeling things as waste, and instead see them as potential resources. The fertility lab (our aptly named composting toilet) was the first structure we erected. In fact we hadn’t ever built anything before and we knew this was a crucial element of Earth centered living and a priority on the homestead.
Why we didn’t install a Septic System
Where is Away?
We knew that the conventional model for dealing with our humanure (more commonly called poop) was to treat water with chemicals until it’s potable, then contaminate it with potentially pathogenic feces, then mix it with a whole more of the same and either store it in a giant underground tank or send it through a sewer system to be further assaulted with chemicals.
Either option is insistent upon the notion of “away”, some fanciful modern construct where our wastes happily disappear. Instead of buying into the existence of “away” and installing an expensive and unnecessary plumbing and septic system, we chose to let nature take care of us and our outputs, and indeed transform them into a usable product!
When nature calls, we choose to let her take care of it.
Composting toilets are a simple, low tech and affordable step towards a healthier planet and saner culture.
When organic materials are combined in proper ways, aerobic decomposition occurs with the aid of micro and macro organisms and we easily & responsibly mange our humanure.
The result is humus, the building block of the soil food web. This is the life force in soil that binds and connects elements into a cohesive whole. Through understanding a few simple concepts, anyone can safely transform their humanure and urine into usable soil building compost. (Again, we’ve gone into the practice of humanure in an earlier post. See links at beginning of article.)
The way I learned composting was through the W.O.N.C acronym. If Water and Oxygen and in balance as well as Carbon and Nitrogen, the composting process should proceed smoothly.
We achieve this balance by adding planer shaving to our deposits. This simultaneously absorbs any excessive moisture, adds texture (to allow space for oxygen) as well as adding large amounts of carbon to the nitrogen rich deposits. The result is a smell-free system that requires very little in the way of maintenance. In contrast to the popular 5 gallon bucket systems where buckets are emptied into an outdoor composting bin and washed after use, we only spend a few hours a year maintaining the system and never have to handle or move poop (this isn’t to knock the bucket system! We have seen excellent case uses of such a system.)
Closing the loop
We’re happy to return the fertility to the land that feeds us. The food we eat nourishes us, which ends up in the composting bays, which turns into humus, which feeds the soil food web and ultimately the trees that feed us. Closing the loop on the nutrient flows through our homestead is a major part of what Permaculture design is all about.
While thermophilic or hot composting systems can achieve a pathogen and parasite free product relatively quickly, the mesophilic method takes time.
Dealing with poop seems gross, and in its raw state it is. It’s stinky and has the potential to spread disease and parasites. Rather than take on the responsibility ourselves, we let natural systems do the work for us. We eat and excrete, it’s part of our make up. But so does everything else…
Compost really is a magical thing!
If given the correct conditions (high enough temps to kill pathogens and parasites) and/or proper time (some sources say a full 2 years of curing to render humanure parasite and pathogen free) we can transform a “waste” (which don’t really exist) into a resource.
The resulting compost can be safely used on vegetable gardens. In our case we still chose to apply the compost as part of our heavy mulch layer under our fruit trees. This is extra assurance, just to be sure. That said we were both pleasantly surprised how earthy the final product was. It smelled like a forest floor.