Many of you have followed our journey in making a pocket pond within our food forest. A pocket pond is a term for a little body of water tucked into the landscape bringing in all of the goodness water features do!
Here are 3 previous posts on the process. Cool to see what we’ve made from a hole in the ground!
Now that spring is nearly here we’ve finished the body of the pond and have planted out the berm, it is time to find some plants for the pond!
The Berm & Surrounding Food Forest
One of the most delicious things about this pond is that it nestles right in the middle of some pretty rich biodiversity and will provide habitat and water for pollinators, frogs, other winged ones and other creatures! As it’s winter, I don’t have any stellar photos to show. Right now it looks just like a bunch of mulch with a few sticks poking out of the ground, but rest assured that it will be amazing & fruitful with each year’s growth!
I also sowed echinacea, our native wild skullcap, agastache, clover and we planted a lingonberry in the berm.
Concerning the food forest,
Aronias and wild false indigo are in a hedge to the north of the pond and the food forest mentioned earlier is to the northwest. It has a paw paw, asparagus, hazelnuts, blueberries, agastache, currants, serviceberries, mulberries, apple, nettle, yaupon, walking onion and strawberries. to the west we have raspberries, lavender, wild false indigo
In the post I mentioned that I was looking to trade thornless blackberries (Chester, Triple Crown), boysenberries, Jerusalem Artichokes, Heritage Raspberries, loganberries for awesome permaculture pond plants! I am currently trading someone thornless blackberries for Chinese water chestnuts and Louisana Iris – awesome!!! Do you have some pond plants you’d like to trade for the plants I’ve listed above? If so, contact me!
Permaculture Pond Plants
Along with those two plants, I have my sights on a few others. I have been doing some research and will distill some of the information here.
As seen in the diagram above, there are varying levels and functions of pond plants. Plants I am focusing on getting from each category are:
Rooted floating plants like the Water lily or American lotus.
Submerged (Oxygenating) plants like the Coontail aka Hornwort.
Floating plants like fairy moss (azolla) or water hyacinth
Marginal plants like Aquatic mint, chinese water chestnut, cattail, Louisiana Iris and others.
From all of my research, these are the plants I’m going to focus on getting to start. Below I’ll walk through some of the reasons I’ve focused on these plants out of the sea of plants that fill each of these categories! If you’re looking for a larger list, the website I linked above is a great place to start.
A good rule of thumb also from the site above:
For coverage of the water’s surface:
One third to one-half of the water’s surface should be covered with free floating and rooted floating plants.
Or, conversely, no more than half of the water’s surface should ever be covered with floating plants
I am choosing the water lily (Nymphaeaceae) because I’ve always thought they are so beautiful! There are also many frost hardy varieties and that’s important to me when choosing plants. I want plants that aren’t picky and will thrive without my doing a lot and that will come back year after year. There is a float in a local river where I spied some water lily and I may go there to get some for my pond.
American Water Lotus
I am excited about the American Water Lotus (Nelumbo lutea), also known as Macoupin by Miami-Illinois Native Americans, is a native water plant with a laudable edible tuber! The seeds are also edible and known as “alligator corn” – with 2 edible parts and beauty, hardiness and lotus flowers this one is really a no-brainer. I have long wanted to grow and be around this plant!
I chose the Coontail as I think I spotted it in a local spring so it will be very easy to get and will be hardy in our area. If possible, I want to get plants that are native to the area because they’re guaranteed to be adapted. This plant oxygenates the water while providing nice cover and food for fish.
Azolla is a plant I did a lot of research on yesterday and I find myself increasingly excited by it! Many people may be more familiar with another surface plant, duckweed, that is used for fast growing animal fodder or an easy to grow biofertiliser. Azolla seems to be getting more popular and I was happy to learn more about it. I’ve known people who grow duckweed and I haven’t heard things that make me want to grow it! Azolla, on the other hand, has some fascinating characteristics and is also a popular fast growing fodder and biofertiliser.
Azolla is a free-floating water fern that fixes nitrogen in association with a specific species of cyanobacteria. Azolla is a renewable biofertiliser and can be mass-produced on the farm like blue-green algae. It is a good source of nitrogen and on decomposition, a source of various micronutrients as well. Its ability to multiply fast means it can stifle and control weeds in (flooded) rice fields. Azolla is also used as a green manure and a high-quality feed for cattle and poultry.
This news about its “association with a specific species of cyanobacteria” is what really perked my ears because it turns out azolla, over millions of years, has developed a symbiotic relationship with this bacteria (a type of algae) and fixes nitrogen as an offshoot of their relationship! So I get rid of algae in my pond and get a nitrogen rich prolific water fern out of the deal? I’m in! Let’s see how this goes, but if it is prolific, I’ll be able to skim it off the top of the water if it gets too excessive and compost it or feed it to our earthworms (it makes great earthworm food!)
I will foremost caution that in many places this plant has the potential to become seriously invasive! With our hard frosts, it’s not a worry in our zone 6b in Missouri, but you should be aware of this and be careful about “disposing” of it in local waterways in your area.
This plant is prolific! It has a lovely purple flower and floats on top of the water with a little balloon like sack. It purifies the water while being beautiful- a winner! It can also be used a biofertilizer or animal fodder.
Chinese Water Chestnut
Lastly I will talk a bit about this plant. I have heard that the fresh taste of one of these is nothing like the canned ones most of us have tried!
A tropical/sub-tropical sedge (like a grass with a long green stalk), the Chinese water chestnut produces a delicious corm that spreads and expands each year! This one, as with other marginal plants, needs to be grown in a bit of “muck” or a shallow bed of soil and I made the shelf for just this thing. We may also put some of these into a bathtub with shallow soil and water and see if we can propagate a lot of them. You can find more info here.
As you can see I am totally excited about these water plants and I’ve had so much fun learning about this whole new world of water gardening. The sky is the limit and I can’t wait to see how this area fills out and becomes so lively!!!
What are some favorite water plants that you’ve cultivated or are must-haves in your pond/future pond?
As you know, dear readers, my thoughts of late have often
been drifting toward climate change. An offshoot of that is that I ask myself,
I ask We the People, What can be done? This isn’t a new question for any of us.
My generation has grown up with disastrous statistics of the earth’s slow and
quicker forms of degradation, yet increasingly we are reaching a critical mass.
Change doesn’t need to happen by 2050, it needs to happen by 2030.
When I started studying Permaculture and having divergent
thoughts about society, politics as usual and culture, my dad and I butted
heads a lot. I remember him often cajoling me that I was a hypocrite because I
drove a car, I consumed, I used electricity based on coal. I was nothing but an
idealist. For many years I let this voice guide me and I acted against it as a
counterbalance. Fine, I said, I will try to be as pure as I can.
For a couple of years I didn’t own a car and when I lived in
the outskirts of Los Angeles, I biked everywhere and when I couldn’t bike, I
took public transit and had a small moped I buzzed around on. This worked, for
a while, but the toll it took on my physical body was too great. I also ended
up waiting a lot and it caused me to be inefficient with my time. The 12 mile
commute on my moped to massage school was brutal in the pre dawn cold and I
would show up with frozen hands – not ideal for massage! When I took the bus,
the circuitous route and many bus changes meant that my commute took around 2
hours. Yet most of all, my body became tired. My lower back started to hurt
frequently and I had signs of adrenal fatigue. I wasn’t a climate superhero, I
was a human who was burning herself out. How could I balance my ideals with my
Our system simply isn’t built (in most places) for people to lessen their use of fossil fuels. Yet for those of us who feel acutely the pain that comes as a biproduct of living with open eyes and seeing the exploitation and theft, what can we do? We witness Amazonian communities where big companies come in for oil and to deforest, raping women, destroying communities and polluting water and land – all for more oil, more timber. How can we continue along as if nothing has changed when we see increasingly that it is getting more and more difficult to extract oil from our earth’s cavities with greater environmental and social cost and pollution? To drive and continue guzzling gas seems heartless and cruel, yet most of us continue to do so out of necessity. Though we care, we are inevitable hypocrites.
As we went around looking for veggie oil we could strain and
process to use in our car, I realized that most people don’t have the psychic
or physical energy, let alone time, to endeavor such a thing. If it’s not
immediately economical for people, it often doesn’t get done. Isn’t that so
often the bottom line? Time, energy and money? In lieu of prioritizing
ecological action, the necessity of capitalism entangles all of our actions.
It’s how we are bread to think and behave. Usually we don’t choose jobs or
lifestyles based on true passion, but because they’re economically stable or
lucrative. We need to change the bottom line, but how? We all have to eat and
wouldn’t a little security later in life be nice?
These days as the next guard of politicians are coming into
office, we are faced with a wave of butting heads. Like my dad, a seasoned “old
guard” of his generation, laughed in the face of my idealism, many “old timers”
see the new politicians and their visions as ludicrous. Alexandria
Ocasio-Cortez is one who is daring to dream big and head up the Green New Deal.
Shortly after it came out, she was heavily criticized for using car
transportation (ostensibly instead of always using public transit- do they know
how much longer that takes and how many stops simply aren’t on routes?) and
because other aspects of her campaign weren’t ecofriendly. What a hypocrite,
they said, She wants to implement a Green New Deal and she’s not even green!
Her rebuttal was key because it’s the world we all live in unless we want to be radical variants like the man who lives without using any money. She’s trying to get things done quickly and efficiently within the system she is trying to change. We all live within this system that causes pain and suffering, usually offloading it to developing countries by extracting their resources, polluting their environments and by damaging their communities. Out of sight out of mind. If you are sensitive like me, however, it doesn’t matter whether the pain is caused in your backyard or in a perpetually disenfranchised population states away like the Indigenous people of the United States who face many crimes at the hands of our government, not least of which is continually broken promises and treaties.
The fact is that we are all connected, we are interconnected, and pain and exploitation somewhere is connected to us all, especially if we are living comfortably as a result of another community’s exploitation.
With all of these thoughts lately, I’ve wondered if the actions of those people who are trying to make steps toward a more sustainable life really matter. Specifically, do my actions matter? As @geke so pointedly publishes each day, the military is shelling out billions of dollars per day and it’s depressing and frustrating to think of where that money is going.
In the face of a global war machine, polluting corporations impervious
to checks and balances, and industrial “civilization” that eclipses individual
action, do my actions even make a difference?
I brought this up with a friend who came over last night. She insisted that our actions do indeed matter and gave Paul Stamets as an example. Stamets is the leading researcher on mushrooms and how they can save the world. His research includes using mushrooms to purify contaminated water, clean up toxins in the environment, as well as heal the human body. His work is groundbreaking and inspiring and he is a driving force for good action in our world. He is someone we can look to and feel that our individual actions do matter, that by following our passions we can find the balms to heal the wounds of our world. After she said that, I realized that she was right. Individual change, paired with key policy shifts and pressure on large corporations to be held accountable for their pollution and actions, are where it all starts. We make up the whole, after all.
We live in a time when there is like a knee-jerk reaction to look up – up the ladder. We look to the big bodies to fix things or to stop things. It’s up to the government to shift it or this business or that organization. We are angry at Facebook for stealing our data, yet millions continue to use it and hand over our data each day. We want them to change, instead of taking a different approach to realize that each one of us makes up the We and we are a part of the Them.
It is disheartening that so many people are choosing rampant consumption rather than look at the impact of our human actions. I scream inside every time I read the statistic that Americans make up 5% of the world’s population but consume 24% of the world’s energy. I cannot change the minds of my fellow Americans. I can’t shake them until they see the destruction their consumption is causing and will continue to cause for eons. I can only change my actions.
For too long we have chosen comfort over aligned sustainable action. I read statistics and I cry and cringe – about plastic pollution, which I wrote about the other day, and studies that say that all of the subjects tested had phthalates in their urine – phthalates that disrupt hormones, neuropathways, cause cancer, and more – and that these are in plastics which are passed around haphazardly (would you like paper or plastic?) and wrapping most of the consumer goods that we buy. I realize that this stuff is taking us over, we don’t know the side effects of it long term, and what we do know is horrific. We’re basically swimming in a sea of hormone shifting plastic, but this is an article I will write for another time.
You may ask why I continue to study these things if they make me scream, cry and cringe.I keep reading because I want to know where we’re at. I want to take an honest look at the state of things and act accordingly. My soul cannot live on this earth and just act like life is going on as normal because it’s not. We aren’t our parent’s generation or their parents who had an American Dream that didn’t already have a bazillion holes poked in it. Unlike them, because of the internet we can see the devastation our actions are causing world round. The American Dream is not a dream everyone can realize – on the way to every human getting it, resources would be long gone and the earth a catastrophic wasteland.
I’m here for a reason and that reason isn’t to blindly
consume and make money at a job that contributes to the devastation of the
earth. I am here to be an earth warrior, not a blind consumer.
How can I enjoy myself when I know that on Navajo reservations that have reaped the negative impacts of having coal plants and mines on their land (tapping already low aquifers, being one impact) thousands of families still don’t have running water or electricity in their homes. How can I live a comfortable life on the back of that inadvertent sacrifice the Navajo people have been forced to make? I don’t see the chasm between their experience and mine.
It is not out of sight out of mind for me, which is why we decided to make our homestead off grid and solar powered (yes I know solar power isn’t perfect and has its fair share of environmental harm.) But you see, that’s the catch 22 I mentioned at the beginning of this article. We cause harm while living within this system. As much as I’ve tried to divest from it in so many ways through growing my own food, building our buildings ourselves with as many natural materials sourced as locally as possible (because the modern building industry is a nasty unexamined business as well), heat with wood sustainably harvested from our forest, and chosen a life of voluntary simplicity thrifting or buying second hand most things, I am still a part of it. Yet that’s not a reason to call me a hypocrite or others like me, for example.
It is my sensitivity which causes me to heed the results of
my actions and which inhibits me from living blindly.
While living within a destructive system, until the system
is dismantled and rebuilt block by block, we cause harm as we seek to shift
things. It’s inevitable. It doesn’t mean I should stop fighting for principles
I believe in and living it out to the best of my ability, and it doesn’t mean
that I shouldn’t, that we shouldn’t start where we are and still speak about
how we wish things could be.
If I light a vision in you, you carry that vision now and it
evolves and morphs inside of your being in a unique way that only your life
experiences and soul can make it. It manifests in a unique way through you.
Never stop dreaming and never stop believing that the seeds of dreams within
your person aren’t the exact things the world needs to hear from you! Imagine
if our great visionaries stopped before they started – if Paul Stamets became
discouraged and never carried on his research into the potentials of mushrooms.
The world would never be blessed with the fruits of his vision. I believe the
same goes for all of us.
The world has enough of the old curmudgeons who have fit their lives to go along with the status quo and who will shoot down every dream you have before it makes its way off the ground. While they may have some wisdom about how the current system works, that’s not the only information we’re interested in. Yes, it’s helpful to understand the current system so we know how to change it, but revolutions happen and will continue happening. I believe our age is ripe for an evolution of that sort.
My age group isn’t having children because we don’t see much hope for the future and we’ve heard statistics about overpopulation our entire lives. How can we add to this mess of humans taking over the earth? These are seeds planted in us and in a myriad of ways they are finding fertile soil, abundant water and sunshine and they’re making their way to the light of day. Perhaps in the end, human action and greed will cause a mass scale die off of all life on this planet. Yet where I stand, I cannot know how this will pan out and I am a hell of a lot more satisfied living out the passions and dreams which make life worth living than defeatedly following along with the status quo. How does it line go?
Mountain Jewel is a permaculture homestead in the heart of the Ozarks. Located 15 minutes outside of Gainesville, Missouri on 18 acres, we focus on perennial agriculture, Herbalism, natural building and bioregional living. As a Center for Earth Connection, we seek to observe and align with natural rhythms, making sustainable use of the resources around us while honoring and getting to know the wilds.
At a 2019 internship at Mountain Jewel, there will be a heavy focus on Natural Building as we are building a Passive Solar Post & Beam Straw Bale Infill house!
We also will be tending and expanding perennial gardens and food forests which includes sharing host of practical skills & information on edible landscaping and useful Permaculture & medicinal plants. We currently have 2.5 acres of Food forests, 2 high tunnels, and .5 acre of intensive perennial and annual garden production. Mountain Jewel is completely off grid (save propane used for cooking) using Solar Power and our water comes from a 250 ft well on the property (soon to include more rainwater harvesting as well.)
What can an intern expect?
As in intern you will have an amazing opportunity to engage in the intimate process of building a natural home & creating and tending food forests.
You will learn mostly by doing, although there will also be some structured “classroom” time. The process is messy at times, involves plenty of consideration and creativity and a lot of physical labor, which can be taxing emotionally as well (especially in the beginning as you familiarize yourself to new surroundings and experiences.)
Through hands-on skill building in a variety of natural building methods and Permaculture principles, you can expect to receive a good introduction to a wide range of practical topics.
Throughout the season we will be going working on different aspects of the build. Starting with site prep and foundation, we will continue with framing, roofing, raising straw bale walls, plastering, laying floors, plumbing, wiring solar systems, plumbing solar hot water, building a rocket mass heater, etc…
In addition to the building, we also tend annual & perennial gardens, high tunnels and food forests, which account for much of our diet. Other opportunities for learning may include rain-water catchment and irrigation systems, grafting, layering and other propagation methods, seeding, general gardening tasks, pruning, fertilizing and more.
On top of this, there is also the reality that you will become an integral part of an organic Permaculture homestead in the country.
With 3 acres of our land open for food forests, high tunnels, outbuildings and gardens, the rest of the land (15 acres) is mature forest which has choice wild edibles and provides respite, recreation and beauty throughout the year (and ticks during the warm months!). Some of our diet is also obtained through foraging and wildcrafting and you are welcome and encouraged to join us in our wild forays where we teach ethical, safe and sustainable harvesting methods.
As we ask for your help 5 out of the 7 days of the week (not necessarily Mon-Fri), this also leaves 2 days a week for rest and exploration of the surrounding areas, much of which is the Mark Twain Natural Forest and includes stellar waterways like Bryant Creek and the Norfork, a world class destination. Our property has a creek of its own and we take dips down there often!
What do we expect?
In opening up our homestead to interns we are seeking to share our experience in hopes of equipping, inspiring and empowering others to participate in meaningful practical ecological ways of living.
Mountain Jewel is foremost a Center for Earth connection and we provide an holistic haven and skill building opportunity for modern humans to reconnect with that which is essential, Nature. Our homestead is dedicated to living in alignment with these natural rhythms and it is these skills we want to pass on.
We foster a culture of respect from ALL participants including ourselves, each other, the wild, the site and the process of learning. This means respecting boundaries, personal space and guidelines we outline as a collective (depending on expressed & present needs.)
We encourage applicants who are engaged, interested, motivated, self directed, passionate and ready to learn. We see this internship as a relationship between you and us, other interns, the process itself, and most importantly, the land. At Mountain Jewel, interns are crucial members of the team and as such we ask that interns take active interest and initiative to facilitate their learning process, express their needs and desires, and support the collective.
This internship will require a lot of physical work and we want you to know that ahead of time. If the workload is ever too much, please express this to you as we seek to create a healthy work culture. During work hours, we invite your full presence and participation.
What time frame?
We would prefer interns to stay from 1-3+ months as we feel this gives a richer depth of experience. It takes time to build relationships to place, process and people, as well as taking into account the skill building process. Seeing the building and gardening process through time is a much more grounded way to build skills and experiences. As we are a family run homestead, we are open to various possibilities and opportunities, and if a situation isn’t working for either party that will be discussed. In these cases, if possible, we practice the Art of Council communication technique to gain clarity and hopefully resolution before going our separate ways. We are all here to learn from and with one another and see these connections as opportunities to do just this. We have a no tolerance policy for any forms of abuse and will not tolerate drug use.
For all potential interns there will be a 2-week trial period to see if the experience is a good fit for all. It will include orientation, training, check-ins and some hands-on tasks. At the end of this, there will be a process where we clarify next steps and make sure all parties are on board. It is our goal to hold space for interns to have a great experience learning more about themselves, the earth and all that we have to share on this homestead.
Lodging and Food
Lodging at Mountain Jewel is simple and rustic. We cannot offer any indoor lodging during the summer months, but offer shaded tent platforms in the woods, running water and a covered outdoor kitchen space for simple food preparation (including a double burner propane range, large sink, shelves, food storage, counter space and table.) While we have a couple extra tents we can loan out, we encourage you to bring a tent that will be your shelter, a sleeping pad or mattress, hammock (with mosquito netting and a tarp) and/or build a shelter (if you know how to adequately do this) once you reach the land.
We live close to nature and ticks, spiders, and other insects inhabit our space with us and the transition to such a lifestyle can take some getting used to. Come mentally prepared and see it as an opportunity to challenge yourself and strip off layers of modern conditioning. It gets hot in the summer and at times this can be oppressive, but we balance this with early morning starts, frequent creek dips, and midday siestas. As mentioned, we do have a creek on the property and this aids a lot in our self care.
Many but not all meals will be shared, and we expect interns to be able take part in food preparation on a rotating schedule. We have yet to work out details, but what has worked best in our experiences has been setting up basic meal plans and going through a rotation where each team member takes their turn in preparation of meals based on what’s seasonally available.
We will offer simple whole foods and seek to eat a balanced diet. We strive for sourcing 100% organic food where we can’t meet these needs ourselves. We eat meat occasionally (wild and locally grass fed from a nearby farms), eggs (don’t have chickens anymore but will source locally) and may source local dairy (depending on refrigeration options at the time).
During the summer, we will have abundant greens and other produce as well as fruits grown on our homestead. Sometimes we fish and often we go mushroom hunting. We buy bulk grains, beans, oil and other staples.
*SORRY, but we may not be able to accommodate certain special diets or allergies. Contact us if this is a concern.
As this is a work exchange there will be no stipend offered. In exchange for 6 hours of work a day 5 days a week, you will have access to bulk food staples, fresh garden produce, one healthy shared group meal a day.
A personal vehicle is recommended but not necessary. We are located 1.5 hours from Springfield, MO, 45 minutes from West Plains, MO, Ava, MO and Mountain Home, AR and frequent these cities biweekly for bulk food runs at the health food stores and other sundries (these towns have a lot of options.) We live 15 minutes from the very small town of Gainesville which has basic amenities (post office, small conventional grocery, library, and gas stations, etc.) You are welcome to come along for these journeys.
Answer the following questions and send us at least 500 words to firstname.lastname@example.org on why you want to do this and your current related knowledge and experience (it’s fine if you have no experience). Tell us a bit about yourself. You can share blogs, social media sites, etc.
Name, Age, Current location, time availability and desired length of stay, special needs/allergies/other considerations, do you have your own camping gear, vehicle or pets, one thing that scares you about this and one thing that excites you, what you’re hoping to get out of it and what aspects you’re most looking forward to. We look forward to hearing from you!
You can learn more about us at Mountain Jewel by checking out our blog at https://steempeak.com/@mountainjewel or http://instagram.com/mountainjewel
You hear us talk about perennials, edible landscapes and food forests a lot. Why have we chosen to focus on perennial agriculture? Through this missive I hope to clarify our motivations.
First some backstory:
Ini and I both spent countless hours working on organic farms specializing in annual production before ever seeing a perennial model. It’s important to make this point that it is our experiences with annual agriculture, not only the philosophies surrounding the practice of perennial agriculture, which, in a way, made this decision for us. Before I had ever heard the word Permaculture, I was working on organic farms and gardens with plants most people are familiar with- your basic veggies and herbs. A smattering of raspberries, asparagus, and perennial herbs were all I had seen of *plants that return* while I was getting my primary education in growing food.
It wasn’t until, after years of back-tiring work I started to get deeper into Permaculture, edible landscapes and food forestry, yet when I started to catch wind of the philosophy I was pretty sure there was no going back. Annual gardening has a lot of great things going for it and a capitalistic based production farm is drawn to many of its benefits. For example, in a short amount of time you can boast high yields and delicious well-known crops (that the consumer base already knows about). There isn’t the need to wait years for something you’ve put in the ground to yield, as is the case with perennial agriculture. This model of quick returns fits right in with the need of the consumer. What would an organic farm sell at market in the interim of planting a tree and when it finally bears fruit? With only so much time and energy on a farm (from a human perspective), annual organic gardening is already a lot to bite off – let alone incorporating a perennial vision into the mix.
As we worked on farms and our backs became more and more tired and we realized the futility of only thinking about the current season (in terms of crop yields – not in terms of soil necessarily as many organic farms take very good care of their soil for long term gain). I worked on one farm that had rows of perennial food crops (like asparagus, strawberries, raspberries, sage and more) that they took to market alongside their annual produce. They talked frequently about upping the perennial production for all that it required per year was perhaps a bit of weeding, some more mulch, perhaps some amendments and a drip irrigation.
There was no seed starting (including trays, potting mix, the time it takes to tend, etc), up-potting the seedlings into larger trays as they grow, plant loss that occurs with young plants (in relation to established plants), soil prep, etc. In fact, there were greater yields each year for less and less work. This seemed like a gardener’s dream. Yes there was a lag time between the sowing and harvest, but, all things considered, it seemed worth the wait. With this vision in mind, and as our journeys started to join in a united vision, Ini and I visited more perennial edible landscapes and we read any books/articles we could about food forestry, perennial agriculture and lesser known perennial food crops. When we met both of us had come to this vision and as our dreams started unfolding into the present lived reality, it seemed clear what we would do: It was time to ground our visions and start creating perennial edible landscapes.
Why Perennial Edible Landscapes
As mentioned above, we already had extensive experience growing annual food crops – and I predict that we will always take part in this to an extent. However, the perennial vision is the one which propels most of our actions and keeps us up late at night making excited exclamations over new crop discoveries that will do well in our area.
Perennial Edible Landscapes In Comparison with Annual Agriculture
– Perennial Agriculture doesn’t disturb the soil leaving the soil food web and biome of the soil in tact.
This has many benefits, but primarily (as many also tote in annual no til gardening), not disturbing the soil reduces erosion, allows the diverse biota of the soil to continue in its strong web formation, doesn’t flip top soil beneath subsoil, and doesn’t kill countless creatures existing in the soil (which are beneficial to the soil as they decompose, aerate, poop, feed on one another creating biomass and keep balance in their micro-ecosystem). When left in tact, healthy communities form and strengthen in their diversity and they balance and stabilize. Though annual tilling produces greater yields in early years, one is essentially continually disturbing these fragile but useful communities of soil microorganisms that help us grow healthier plants.
– Perennial Agriculture is Nature’s Way: Creating Balanced, Perpetual Ecosystems
Permaculture seeks to align human relations with the earth by observing what the earth is already doing. By aligning – not dominating, overworking, exploiting or putting our ideas onto – we can reap much greater yields than if we work against the way of nature.
I think this point is best demonstrated through an example. When you create a garden, tilling and baring the soil, what happens alongside the crops that you grow? Weeds come up, right? Opportunistic, often edible or even medicinal, plants. You’ll have then growing taller than your crops if you’re not careful! And if you leave your garden unweeded, un-mulched and untended, they’ll take over your garden forming a large, nearly unpenetrable mat. In reality, the soil abhors a void and covers itself. These plants draw up nutrients from deep in the earth and decompose aiding the soil and they also stop erosion from happening. After time, if you let these plants grow, pioneer species will also come in – these are the shrubs and brush, scrubby opportunistic un-picky plants that are very adaptable. You’ll also see hedges of these on the edges of farm fields and forests all over. They are the transition plants.
After this, trees will pop up and vines and what was once barren soil no longer resembles a scrubby, brushy field. But you’ll notice, nary a space is left from what you had initially cleared. Nature is progressing toward stability, which is often (depending on the climate/habitat/water availability/etc) a forest with all of its many layers. By planting food forests, with edible ground cover, shrub layer, midstory, vining and canopy species, we are actually taking part in creating an ecosystem that nature finds very stable. We are simply selecting which plants go into nature’s algorithm. Unlike annual agriculture, we wont need to dig up, replace, seed start and continually work the soil. Instead, with each year, this ecosystem comes into its own and matures, producing more yields with each year and remaining very stable.
– Easier on the Back
Although there are undoubtedly greater initial yields with annual cropping, over time perennial food systems yield just as much, if not more harvests with less overall work. As I worked on farms during the summer seasons, at times 8 hours a day nearly every day of the week, my back was the first thing to speak up. It hurt! Often! One farm I worked at was an organic farm of about 8 acres that had a CSA and also went to a weekly market. We produced a lot of food for our local community, but the farm was often understaffed and it had trouble making ends meet – even though we were working as hard as we could and producing as much food as the land would allow in any given season. This added to the back pain – knowing that we would need to struggle at this again the next year, while we heard our efforts literally weren’t paying off to make the farm a sustainable operation. This isn’t an isolated story- many farms struggle to “make it” economically even though they’re producing as much as they can and providing a very needed service for their communities! (Could write an entire article on this alone!) When my back really started to hurt from all of the bending over and hard physical labor, I started to seriously consider other options – options that could be sustainable in terms of my back, labor, money and for the land.
– Greater Yields, Less Work
Perennial agriculture is a waiting game. Yet, after that waiting game is over, the yields are tremendous and longevous! A farmer knows well that what you reap is what you sow, but there is no harm in extending this cycle. In fact, after the initial work of clearing the land for planting, preparing soil, planting, watering, mulching, the work load drops off tremendously.
There is a comparable initial input of time and labor and yet, with a little tending each year, the benefits continue coming with hardly any work! This is not so in annual gardening when, after each season, usually one just has to contend with equal work loads of the previous year, slightly more depleted soil, tons of beat up used seedling trays, piles of disorganized crop covers, and perhaps even long sheets of ragged plastics used to suppress weeds. In comparison, a food forest just keeps getting better each year! When done right (and by this I mean planted after observing your locale for quite some time with good spacing, tended with good watering and much mulch -for weed suppression, water retention and encouragement of healthy soil microorganisms), food forests will take care of you for many years to come!
– Fun to plant and tend
This is the step we’re in right now at Mountain Jewel. By getting a grant through EQIP to plant fruit and nut trees, we’ve been able to get off to a great start in actualizing our perennial agriculture dreams! We’ve bought hundreds of trees, shrubs, rhizomes, tubers, herbs and more and planted them acres around the property. The initial clearing (of scrub land, basically) is the hardest work. Fires, rakes, a grub hoe, a chainsaw, and a lot of sweat are our main tools. After that, the design and planting is fun! We are careful to heavily cardboard and mulch (to suppress weeds and retain moisture) initially and after that we are given the task of waiting and tending until things start to bear fruit!
Some plants, like comfrey, which is a chop and drop medicinal mulch plant par excellent!, we keep dividing and spreading all throughout the understory. Other plants, like thornless blackberries, vigorously replicate themselves (which accounts for our many plants we have for sale at the Homesteader’s Coop!). And many other plants, like many of our standard fruit trees, have yet to really make a peep. These plants take longer to bear, to really rev up per say, but once they get going they produce quantities beyond what any annual crop can! It’s a long term vision.
– Diversity Rules the Day
One of annual agricultures greatest faults is its susceptibility. It’s only natural as it’s going against the way of nature. Humans have tried to curtail this basic law by creating a massive warlike business of -cides (herbicide, pesticide, etc), but the fact remains that annual monocrops (one crop in an area instead of a diverse array) are more susceptible to disease and pests than a diverse ecosystem. Why is that? If you only have one crop in an entire field and a predator insect comes, they’ll wipe out your entire crop. The more variety of crops you have, the more resilience you have against pests coming and destroying it all. In a perennial ecosystem, we strive to up the diversity tremendous proportions and include guardian plants, like many in the allium family (garlic, onion, etc) that confuse predators and slow them down and even avert (in the case of marigolds) them from their mission. Annual agriculture can also employ these techniques, but often it is far easier to mass produce (which is what modern agriculture focuses on) anything of a diverse nature, as different plants need different things. Many smaller organic farms do employ these techniques and that is one of the ways we can help strengthen our human chosen edible agricultures and not use pesticides or herbicides simply to grow food! Always buy organic (if your budget allows) for many reasons – this being a major one.
– Growing the Soil with Ease
In annual agriculture, the soil often takes a hit. Plants are grown in it each season and, as they extract valuable minerals and nutrients and go off to market, leave the soil depleted. Many organic farms do an excellent job of building and maintaining, or even boosting their soil quality, yet it often takes expensive, non locally sourced and timely to apply inputs to do the job. In contrast, with all of the cover crops (which annual farms also employ) and mulch that we apply onto our soils, over time we end up with really nice top soil! Again, it takes time to decompose and we still may add amendments at times, but the need is far less than in an annual model.
Time, Necessity, & “The Way Things Are” as Main Factors
I could go on in sharing some of the reasons we chose to focus on perennial agriculture and I’m sure I’ll think of many other reasons and may do a Part 2, but, in closing, I want to speak to the inhibitory factors against perennial landscapes that keep many farms, homesteads, gardens and, indeed, humans from adopting these methods. First, I think many people simply don’t know about the breadth and scope of their option to produce copious amounts of food through perennial edible landscaping. Partly I am writing this article to get the beneficial word out there so more people can adopt perennial styles!
Secondly, we are often addicted to “The Way Things Are” as humans and unfamiliar (or lack of familiar) crops often take time to be accepted. One lady in our local area, in response to talk of setting up a vegetable market in our local town, humorously said, “We likely wont eat those veggies for if our grandmothers didn’t eat it, we wont either!” It’s human nature to eat like our parents did, although there is increasingly a lot of deconstructing of dietary choices going on and I hope this lends itself to opening the mind towards a perennial shift. And as I said, I’m not advocating a complete doing away with of common annual vegetables (we still have an extensive annual garden), but into shifting the focus, or even 3/4 of the land use to perennial agriculture.
Necessity is another huge inhibitory factor against perennial agriculture. When we first moved to the homestead, we planted crops that would yield quickly for us as we needed food Now! (Yes, we still go to the grocery, but set ourselves to try to grow us much as we could ourselves.) Many perhaps don’t have the luxury of embellishing a long term fruition as they need food now to survive. However, I would encourage anyone in this position to consider putting aside some effort and space for perennial agriculture and look at it as an investment for your future. Even one tree, shrub or variety of tuber a year adds up over time and while you’re busy with the annual garden, it sure will be nice when that apple tree finally blooms!
This brings me to my last point, which ties right in there with necessity: Time – many say they don’t have enough of it, but it’s all in how we sculpt our days. For me, the waiting game of perennial landscapes is just a part of it. We have planted hundreds of plants that we haven’t gotten anything from yet– and that may truly be too much for some people. Yet again, consider it an investment for your — or your kids or grandkids future. Every perennial plant that you put in the ground is sure to increase in yields with every year with a little care and tending. If we do this and take a slow and steady approach, we will soon be very grateful for the actions of our past selves and have lots to share with others.
In the meantime, we also have lots we can mindfully harvest from the wild!
We have missed each of you! As I sat (I went back to serve a Vipassana course) during a meditation session, sometimes my mind would wander to the herbal realm where I envisioned homestead offerings I would like to share this year. This product I am sharing today was something that I put into motion around the summer solstice, as this is the time of year that this plant shines!
Even taking a glance at this post reminds me of the bright medicine that midsummer holds, and especially how lovely it is to take a deep (energetic) whiff of it during winter! Encapsulating the suns energy through making herbal medicine at this time is a treat for our future selves.
I finally went about making a label for this product. I kept it quite simple:
And now I am ready to offer this amazing product!
What is Hypericum Oil?
According to many sources, hypericum oil has been used for a long time. It’s one of the medicines lauded from the beginning of herbal records. In fact, people respected it so much that it was said to repel evil spirits (perhaps today interpreted as its antiviral and antibacterial properties) and depressions of all types.
Used internally it is well known these days for a natural antidepressant. I experimented with this in Autumn and was pleased to be able to concur as its gentle healing properties became known to me almost immediately!
The herbal oil, used topically, however, brings another aspect of this magical plant’s potency: wound healing. Whether a burn, a wound, old or new scar tissue, inflammation from inflamed sciatic or other nerve troubles, sore muscles after a hard day’s work, arthritis, St John’s Wort oil (long known as Hypericum oil – scientific name Hypericum perforatum) is your ticket!
Simply massage some of this amazing herbal oil into your skin and truly the effects make themselves known quite quickly. I’ve never had nerve pain, but I do know a thing or two about tired and sore muscles and I find quick relief after rubbing some on (or having Ini do it.)
We’ve decided to offer this exclusively at the @homesteaderscoop to start because we love this community and thing it’s an amazing development. It’s an ethical, sustainable, verifiable business model initiated and developed by some truly inspirational and quality people. Not to mention, it’s a coop that doesn’t take any cut from the vendors or buyers! Using Steem blockchain as its revenue generator (through posts and delegations), we are able to try our hand at being a part of a collective and truly sustainable business.
I only have a handful of this product for sale so get one if you find yourself drawn to its longstanding healing nature and a little dose of peak Sunshine from the time of the solstice!
Oh the slow chilled winter daze! It feels like winter has finally hit! We had our first snow a few days ago and temps have dropped. The Canadian enjoys this weather much more than I do. Feeling like my bundled child self when I do go out, I mainly only go outside to adventure into the woods and to the creek or to make it from point A to point B. Aside from indoor projects (like tiling) and Ini’s work on the Welcome Kiosk, we are turning our sights inward, reading much, and spending time indoors. As previously mentioned, this winter I wanted to teach myself to weave with native materials. I started off looking into the river cane, an incredible native bamboo beloved by the Native Americans who lived here previously. Yet, I feel I need a teacher to move forward in this craft — or perhaps I am trying to peel the cane in the wrong season? Nevertheless, there are some Native teachers I may seek out in Oklahoma- especially if they have a workshop on cane material prep and weaving this year. Instead, I have turned my sights onto other materials and I’ve made two baskets! My first basket – what a thing! Though I did it with a library book tutorial, each step is new and one doesn’t know what one needs to do until ya do it for the first time. It’s cool to already see progress on basket #2 – simply because I knew more about the nuances of the materials and what needed to happen at each stage. Still, the first basket, a true experimental labor of love, is in use and am somewhat charmed by it. However, this second basket.. Ini and I aren’t really taking our eyes off of it! Far from perfect, my second basket is USEFUL. It is this that has me deeply enamored with this process. The indwelling magic of taking nothing but materials from here to make a useful object with them. As I wrote last night in reflection: I finished a basket tonight that’s already holding our cedar kindling and sitting next to the fire. It was definitely a life changing moment seeing it there. Somewhat of an epiphany. So outside of capitalism, untouchable. Made completely from this land I love only using secateurs, following a book from the library, a transmission of a skill long held by humans. Something untouchable by the system, made from here, by my hand & serving a purpose… weaving purpose with the land. Truly I am enamored with this process and its implications. In a throwaway culture to be able to take a wildcrafting jaunt, especially down by wild water hearing the sounds of the fluid creek as I gather willow, sycamore, bramble and other vines, and harvest materials for a much needed basket… this is really something else. Of course something quite old, but marvelous to my modern self. We’ve been needing a kindling basket for quite some time and we love the look of it sitting there holding the freshly split cedar from our land that we use to start our fires. It beautifies and enhances the whole place. And just looking at it.. the hues and textures, knowing it is born of the river, carries the energy of flood and heron, sunshine and the constant gurgle of spring fed creek… but most of all that it didn’t pass through the hands of commerce and I made it! And I can make more! I would like to next perhaps work on a basket with a circular base. It is a bit tricky with the materials I have because they are note uniform “farmed” willow (though I think I will order some of these cuttings to root in the spring so that I can have some cultivated “basketry willow” which is longer, stronger, uniform and comes in neat colors! Yet making these “wild” baskets is a fantastic first step and I read somewhere, and was thinking this too, that if I can weave with the irregular funky pieces, I will cultivate my skill well for when I do have the long ones. And I do love the funk! Happiness is making practical objects which escape the economy, made from the land which we love and tend, adding beauty to our abode. I’ve read a lot of books lately on indigenous stories and I am feeling inspired — and also that sick/raging sadness of the destructive march of civilization/modern culture which erases and kills it at every turn. Yet these are skills that bring life and we are all connected to the land, and can be more aware and more connected if we put more time/attention into it. Blessings, Wren of Mountain Jewel
It’s a new year and I’m feeling invigorated to learn a new craft. Isn’t that funny how something you passed over in the past may strike an inward fancy and seemingly a breeze on the wind can propel one toward learning a new skill?
It started off with hopes of purchasing some willow cuttings from Dunbar Gardens. @schoonercreek, whom some of you may remember, recommended them as a source. As more and more beautiful baskets were passing my vision on Instagram, I’d decided I would grow a patch of willow, wait for it to grow and in the meantime teach myself weaving using brambles and hopefully some wild willows that I could find near me. As I started doing research, however, I found an incredible diversity and wealth of inspiration that quickly changed my initial plans. I will likely still purchase some willow cuttings and root them in this year’s Food (and useful material) Forest planting in “the Orchard” (where you’ve seen us recently clearing and planting apple trees.) Yet I will also be using my energy to try out other local materials, ones that have a distinct and superior history of use.
Choctaw and Cherokee
As I was racking my mind to think of different things I could gather to practice making simple baskets, I thought of the grapevines, aforementioned willows, brambles, wild roses, honeysuckle and much more. People have been weaving since before neolithic times – an art many are keeping alive and reviving and the sky is really the limit as far as what you can make baskets and other useful items with.
What I’ve read is that if you can bend the material at a 90 degree angle or if you can wrap it around your wrist and it doesn’t break, the material is good for weaving.
I wondered, had the river cane, Arundinaria gigantea, our native bamboo (and one of the three temperate native bamboos in North America), been used?
A quick search found some jawdropping creations by this region’s original inhabitants, the Choctaw and Cherokee.
Here are some samples of their works, though follow the links if you want to be further impressed. Some of these were even made to be watertight!!!
Large pack baskets, such as this one, were used by Choctaw women for transporting many types of large or bulky objects. These baskets were used to harvest fields, to collect wild food and other resources, to pack a family’s belongings for travel, and even to carry the soil for constructing earth mounds. Most pack baskets, including this one, have a leather tumpline, or strap that goes over the forehead to help stabilize the load.
Immediately, I was intrigued. This is the same river cane that we have here and I live on a creek called Caney Creek!
Ini and I have always looked at the cane and wondered what we could do with it. Our neighbors have rich stands of it and it lines the creek that abuts our land’s western edge. People don’t seem to value it much, though I am increasingly learning of its importance and in the importance of tending wild stands.
Cane favors stream banks and acts better than hardwood trees to stabilize the bank from erosion and to filter run-off pollutants. In fact, the big stand of cane on Highway 209 was planted as a stream bank stabilizer by the landowner, on the advice of the county agricultural extension agent, about 40 years ago.
Researchers estimate that some 98 percent of the canebrakes present when the Europeans arrived have been lost. The usual suspect is the enclosure of animals, especially cattle, which eat the tender cane shoots as they emerge. In Cherokee, the tribe has sponsored a restoration project to ensure native basketmakers having a supply of cane for their work. Preserving river cane is one way to recognize the history and value of this hardy and beautiful grass. Source
It’s very important that we treat this process with respect and as Robin Wall Kimmerer, author of Braiding Sweetgrass, writes,
Know the ways of the ones who take care of you, so
that you may take care of them. Introduce yourself.
Be accountable as the one who comes asking for life.
Ask permission before taking. Abide by the answer.
Give thanks for what you have been given.
Give a gift, in reciprocity for what you have taken.
To this end, I want to tend wild stands near our creek, spreading the rhizomes and making sure I am adding back what I am gratefully taking.
Foraging & Learning
My first foraging mission happened yesterday, as many of you caught on to in my DTube video and post. I took my Gerber machete down to the creek and just looked around. I found a lot of wild rose, catbriar and grapevine and finally made it to a canebreak, the name for the cane stands.
I had done a bit of research on making basket materials from the cane, but sadly it is sorely lacking online so I wasn’t sure what size or age I was looking for. I took a few big ones (the size of my thumb- which I later learned are the size you want) and some smaller ones to experiment with. I used my machete to chop off the leaves, which reside at the nodes of the cane.
That evening I brought them into the cozy cabin after googling my heart out for more information. I had found out a few things and watched 1 video which helped me understand a bit more what I was after.
That first night was quite funny as Ini tried to split the cane in half and then into quarters and trip the inner pith out. Today I finally found a couple Youtube videos which demonstrated what needs to be done- not what we spent hours last night doing! Hah! But it was good practice and it’s important, I think, to experiment and just try.
This morning I went and harvested more cane and practiced using the new techniques I found out. Thank you past humans and those who have carried this tradition on! I got some usable material.
It’s incredible to believe that this is just Step 1! Next, they usually would then dye the pieces, walnut and bloodroot are two popular local options, and then weave! I found some weaving demonstrations online, but I may practice using brambles as it is a lot of embedded energy in each cane piece and I would like to have a wee idea of what I’m doing before I use them.
Into the Future
I’ve also found some Choctaw classes in Oklahoma (about a 4 hour drive) that I may attend to learn more about these techniques. I am so thankful they’ve been carried on and I’ve watched many Youtube videos and been very heartened to discover that though not quite popular, this art has been carried on and is currently being passed to the next generations.
A fire burns inside as I study these techniques and look with wonder at the baskets and other practical items the Natives to this land created for thousands of years. I seek to honor them as I learn this craft and likely blend techniques as I gain in skill.
Just got in at 2 am from visiting my sis and her family near some mountains in Colorado and @birdsinparadise and my dad were there too! Conked out after we got in and woke up to a balmy 45 degree temp so I decided to take a walk in the garden.
Being the garden nerd that I am, I go around and greet my plants, even though some of them are simply roots underground. I can still feel them. My sis and bro in law made Ini and I this cute little cement foot of their new child, my nephew Brooks! What a better place to put it than on the old stump next to the crystals near some raspberries, goumi & asparagus! I am already hatching plans to have my nephew spend weeks in the summer here where we can indoctrinate him with plant lore and alternative lifestyle visions… And what a sweet little foot he has…
Good to be Back
As you know, we spent most of December away! A dear old friend visited upon our return and then we flew the coop again, spirited away to visit family. We’ve hardly spent any time here! Since the temps were so balmy, it was great weather to take a walk into the woods. Even though our place is 18 acres, which really isn’t too big, we don’t make it to certain parts of the land.
Today we took a jaunt over to a North East slope where there are some awesome overhanging rocks.
Woodland Walks with Cats
I always take it with a little smile inside that our cats follow us on walks. Sometimes just one or today 3 of them… It’s cool they want to be near us and fun to see them scamper and play. They’re clearly happy to have us back and our dog is happy to be home (we had her at a kennel) and she was doing loops around us as we walked through the woods.
Into the Future
Winter is such a great time for rest and we’re reading, cozying up by the fire, eating nourishing food, meditating, spending time with friends, planning for the year ahead, moving plants around (today moved and split up an elecampane plant), and finishing up odds and ends around the homestead. I feel like there is so much space and that’s such a welcome feeling after the rush of necessity inherent in the last 3 years.
We talked about this a bit with the friend who just visited. She’s built log cabins in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and in the interior of Alaska… and then left… after 2 years each time. At that point, she said, things had just begun settling down from the necessity of getting food, shelter, water, etc worked out.
I feel like we’re finally getting there, to that spot of equilibrium where we aren’t rushing around taking care of our core needs. And that feels really fucking good.
Yet the house plans are also on the horizon and talk of inviting interns into our space. 2019 will be a good and full year and I feel that we’re filling our reserves and holistically preparing for what comes ahead! I’m excited!
In Other News
A happy holiday season to all of you! Wishing you the best from our mountain homestead! I’ve enjoyed sharing our SP and will be taking back the delegations shortly after posting this. I hope you all have had a good time with them and been able to grow your accounts a bit and share the love!
Looking forward to coming into 2019 strong, healthy and clear! Steem On & Much love!
One thing you should know about our area is that we live in a place that is prone to flooding.
Last night we were awakened around 2 AM to the sound of rain pounding on our cupola. We have 100 yr+ White Oaks surrounding the house and when I woke up in the middle of the night hearing rain and the whoosh of the trees around me, my heart gave a little panic and I prayed that they wouldn’t fall on our roof.
Marty Raney of Homestead Rescue (and the whole Discovey Channel Team) begged us to remove the trees. In fact, it was the drama they were looking for the last day — except their plans were thwarted because they couldn’t make it to our homestead. We had a historic “100 year flood” and had to turn around. We were stranded that night and the next day.
We set out early to assess the damage and found a sycamore tree over the “high water bridge” near our house. With the help of our neighbors, we removed it. Yet many times we find our low and high water bridges under water after heavy rains. Now, after a deluge, we always go and check out the damage done, so to say.
This morning I went outside and heard the creeks roaring. We are experiencing unseasonably warm temps and Ini and I were itching to go on a walk.
Though this plant, also known as Jerusalem Artichoke, Sunroot or Sunchoke, is making a revival, I have heard much negative press about this forgotten, yet increasingly popular root vegetable. Largely the negatives reside around the side effect of flatulence due to its inulin content (the same characteristic that has earned it the title of a nutraceutical) and the flavor.
Last night Ini and I made our first harvest of these tubers in the sunflower family. A wild plant to the Americas, they were first tended and selected by Native Americans in the eastern part of the continent, yet now they are popular all over the world after early Europeans brought them home with them.
We have already written about the plant and showed you some very sexy photos of the plant in bloom here so today I want to focus on the roots, their preparation towards the tastiest (and easiest) of dishes and ways we can reduce that fartaffect.
Because last night, let’s just say I was nearly gassed out of my house between Ini and the dog and my own digestive track was doing the rumble and “letting wind” — I have a personal stake in the matter.
And as their perennial nature of self propagation, ease of growing, and health benefits, I am not even close to giving up on this plant.
Digging them was like digging for treasure and as we collected the smaller heads and filled the hole with a big head and spread them around the property, we realized what an easy staple food crop this truly is.
I learned that indigestible polysaccharides such as inulin can be converted to digestible sugars by “acid hydrolysis.” In layman’s terms, that means bathing the inulin in something watery and acidic. Lemon juice, perhaps?
“Boiling Jerusalem artichokes in an acid such as lemon juice or vinegar will hydrolyze the inulin to fructose and small amounts of glucose,” Rastall advises.
Here’s another solution: Traditional fermentation-style pickling also removes sunchokes’ gaseous effects – while retaining their artichoke flavor. Gardening mavens Linda Ziedrich and Rose Marie Nichols McGee developed a game-changing recipe that yields completely gas-free Jerusalem artichoke pickles that keep all their wonderful crunch and taste.
Build Up A Tolerance
His fix for the overdose of inulin in Jerusalem artichokes? Build a tolerance. “Rather than avoiding all inulin, I suggest that people consume small quantities on a regular basis,” he notes. “Their gut microbiota will adapt – the proportion of beneficial bacteria will grow, while the gas-producing bacteria will diminish – and after a while they will be able to eat Jerusalem artichokes without discomfort.”
In On Food and Cooking (2004 edition), page 307, Harold McGee indicates that the… erm… flatulent effects of sun chokes (also called Jerusalem artichokes) are due to complex fructose-based carbohydrates that are not digestible by humans.
> Long, slow cooking allows enzymes present in the fresh of the tuber will convert these fructose over time. McGee recommends 12-24 hours at 200 F / 93 C.
“About half of the remaining indigestibles can be removed by boiling in a large volume of water for 15 minutes.”
Harold McGee addresses this subject in his excellent book, The Curious Cook (1990). He explains the Jerusalem artichoke in great detail in the chapter titled, “Taking the Wind out of the Sunroot.” His conclusions are (a) the quantities of the responsible carbohydrate are somewhat dissipated during cold storage of a month or more.
As one of the other answers outlines: the most accepted remedy is cold storage or late harvesting. When left in the groud during the winter, the tubers transform the inulin, thus enabling us to effectively digest the Sunchokes. This means that if you are growing your own, you can just harvest the tubers on the day you eat them, provided you do so late in the season.
First Things First
This is so exciting. Ini and I dug up a bunch of sunroots today and last night and will be selling some on the @homesteaderscoop for SBD! We bought these from a reputable nursery and they are select varieties!
First things first, I have some wonderful fodder here to experiment with. I think, to start, we’ll try the fermented aspect. As you know, we’re going on a 10 day meditation retreat shortly and will start a couple batches of classic lactofermentation using these sunroot and some salt (and other herbs and spices, and perhaps vegetables, as the mood strikes.)
The sky is the limit when it comes to learning how to most effectively partner with perennial vegetables. One thing is for certain, I feel the joy of life moving through me as a I work with this plant and I feel the familiar happiness and wonder at thinking of all of the humans whose hands this vegetable has passed through and how it has traveled all over the world (via humans and yes of course rodents, which are known to move little tidbits around gardens everywhere– and the plant will grow from the smallest tidbit!)
How do you like to eat Sunroot? Start small and let our bodies, which aren’t used to high amounts of inulin, get up to speed with this nutraceutical and it sounds like we’ll be off to a better start.
Let me know your favorite ways to eat it in the comments below!